INTRODUCED GRASSES


Crested Wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, Agropyron desertorum, and Agropyron fragile

Crested wheatgrasses and Siberian wheatgrass are perennial grasses commonly seeded in the western United States.  They are long lived, cool season, drought tolerant, introduced grasses with extensive root systems.  Crested wheatgrass is recommended for forage production.  It is palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife.  Its drought tolerance, fibrous root system, and good seedling vigor make Crested wheatgrass ideal for reclamation in areas with 8 to 20 inches of annual precipitation.  Crested wheatgrass grows on moderately course to fine textured soil up to 9,000 feet elevation.

Cultivars:
cristatum type: Douglas, Ephraim, Parkway, Roadcrest, and Ruff
desortum type: Nordan and Summit
fragile type: P27 and Vavilov








Creeping Foxtail:  (Alopecurus arundinaceus)

Creeping foxtail is a large, long lived, rhizomatous, sod forming perennial grass introduced from Eurasia.  Creeping foxtail is very well suited for pastureland or hayland.  Because it does not undergo dormancy during the summer, creeping foxtail produces high yields of palatable forage season long.  Creeping foxtail’s vigorous rhizome production and water tolerance make it well suited for erosion control and stream bank stabilization.  It survives a broad range of pH, making it suitable for mine spoils, saline seeps, bogs, and acidic roadways.  Creeping foxtail is adapted to cold temperatures and wet conditions at elevations ranging from 500 to 9000 feet.

Cultivars:  Garrison, Retain






Meadow Brome: (Bromus biebersteinii)

Meadow brome is native to southwestern Asia near Turkey.  It is a long lived, rapid developing, leafy, introduced, cool season grass that spreads by short rhizomes.  When grown under irrigation, it can reach 2 to 6 feet in height.  Meadow brome is very winter hardy.  It can be grown under dryland conditions in 14 plus inches of annual precipitation regions of the foothills, mountains, and irrigated areas throughout the West.  The primary use of meadow brome is for forage production.  It is used for pasture, hay and haylage.  It is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife.  Due to its deep roots and tiller base, it is capable of strong summer growth and regrowth following grazing or haying.  Meadow brome performs well on soil textures ranging from shallow to deep, coarse gravely to medium textured, well to moderately well drained, and moderately acidic to weakly saline to alkali.

Cultivars:  Fleet, MacBeth, Montana, Paddock, and Regar






Smooth Brome: (Bromus inermis)

Smooth brome is a leafy sod forming, perennial, cool season grass that spreads by rhizomes.  Smooth brome is best adapted to cooler climates and is resistant to drought and extreme in temperature.  It grows best on slightly acid to slightly alkaline well drained clay loam soils.  Smooth brome has a massive root system and is a sod former; therefore it can be effectively used for critical area planting and grassed waterways.  Smooth brome may be used for hay, pasture, or silage.  The grass is highly palatable and is high in protein.

Cultivars:
Northern type:  Superior, Manchar, Carlton, Jubilee, Saratoga, Polar, and Bravo
Southern type:  Lincoln, Achenbach, Elsberry, Lancaster, Lyon, Southland, Rebound, Baylor and Beacon









Orchardgrass: (Dactylis glomerata)

Orchardgrass is a long lived, introduced, cool season bunchgrass.  Under dryland conditions, it usually develops distinct clumps and flower culms 15 to 18 inches tall.  Orchardgrass is winter hardy and is adapted to moderate to well drained basic to acidic soils.  It performs well on soil textures ranging from clay to gravely loams and on shallow to deep soils.  Orchardgrass is found from Maine to the Gulf Coast states and from the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific Coast.  The primary use for orchardgrass is for forage production.  It is used for pasture, hay, and silage.  It is highly palatable to all classes of livestock.

Cultivars: Latar, Paiute, Potomac, Profile, and Berber








Russian Wildrye: (Psathyrostachys junceus)

Russian wildrye is a large, cool season, introduced, long lived, perennial bunchgrass.  Russian wildrye is well adapted to silt loam to heavy clay soils.  It grows at elevations up to 7,500 feet in northern latitudes and to 9,000 feet in southern latitudes.  Russian wildrye is best adapted for use as pasture in dry areas.  The forage is very palatable and has a longer growing period than most dryland grasses.  It is generally recommended for late summer through winter grazing.  Wide row spacing plantings (18 to 36 inch) produce more forage than narrow row spacing (6 to 14 inch) plantings.

Cultivars:  Bozoisky, Bozoisky Select, Bozoisky II, Cabree, Mankota, Mayak, and Vinall








Creeping Red Fescue: (Festuca rubra ssp. arenaria)

Creeping red fescue is a perennial with short rootstalks and few to many stems that are usually reddish at the base and 6 to 36 inches high, with smooth leaves and sheaths.  Creeping red fescue is adapted to gravely, calcareous soils in cool, temperate climates.  It makes excellent lawns, golf greens and turf for ground cover in landscaping.  It is particularly important in shaded locations and on sandy soils.

Cultivars:  Boreal, Pennlawn, Vista, Shademaster II, Florentine, Jasper II, and Flyer II









Perennial Ryegrass:  (Lolium perenne)

Perennial ryegrass from 1 to 2 feet tall with a bunchy form, and has medium longevity.  It has a wide range of adaptability to soils, but thrives best on dark rich soils in regions having mild climates.  Perennial ryegrass is a valuable forage and soil stabilization plant.  Generally speaking, the tetraploid cultivars are used for forage, and diploid cultivars are for lawns and conservation planting.

Cultivars: Amazing GS, Linn, Cabo, Kokomo, Fiji, Caddieshack, Top Gun and many more









Kentucky Bluegrass:  (Poa pratensis)

Kentucky bluegrass is a perennial cool season, sod forming grass native to Europe.  Kentucky bluegrass is used throughout the U.S.  It is best adapted to well drained, fertile, medium textured soils of limestone origin.  Kentucky bluegrass provides a dense green sod especially adapted for parks and home lawns. It is also excellent turf for ball fields and other heavy use areas such as camp grounds, golf fairways, and picnic areas.

Cultivars:  Wild Horse, Baron, Durham, Moonstruck, NuGlade, Midnight and many others









Tall Fescue:  (Lolium arundinaceum)

Tall fescue is a robust long lived, comparatively deep rooted bunchgrass.  Tall fescue is adapted to cool and humid climates and will grow fairly well on soils low in fertility, but does better in fertile conditions.  Fine leafed cultivars are intended as turf grasses and often are intentionally endophyte infected to capitalize on the competitive advantage that the endophyte confers to the plant.

Cultivars:  Arabia, Quest, Jaguar 3, Ninja 3, Cortez II, Cochise IV, Serengeti and many others








Tall Wheatgrass:  (Thinopyrum ponticum)

Tall wheatgrass is a tall, long lived perennial bunchgrass reaching 3 to 10 feet tall.  It is often recommended for 12 to 14 inch and higher precipitation zones or sites with high water tables and alkaline soils.  Tall wheatgrass is one of the most saline or alkali tolerant cultivated grasses.  It can tolerate up to 1% soluble soil salts.  For this reason tall wheatgrass is planted for forage where few other species will survive.

Cultivars:  Alkar, Jose, Largo, Nebraska 98526, Orbit and Platte









Timothy:  (Phleum pratense)

Timothy is a relatively short lived perennial, cool season, introduced bunchgrass.  It will reach a height of 20 to 40 inches.  Timothy is best adapted to moist bottomlands and on finer textured soils, such as clay loams.  Timothy is nutritious and palatable and used mostly for hay, but can be used in pasture situations.

Cultivars:  Climax











Intermediate/Pubescent Wheatgrass:  (Thinopyrum intermedium/Thnopyrum intermedium ssp. Barbulatum)
Intermediate/Pubescent wheatgrass is an introduced perennial grass native to Europe and Asia.  These species are a long lived cool season grasses with short rhizomes and a deep feeding root system.  Usually grows to 3-4 feet in height.  Intermediate/Pubescent are used for hay and pasture and are palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife.  They are adapted to areas receiving 11 to 13 inches of annual precipitation and elevations ranging from 3500 feet to 9000 feet.  Intermediate/Pubescent prefer well drained loamy to clayey textured soils.

Cultivars:
Intermediate type:  Chief, Clarke, Oahe, Rush, and Reliant
Pubescent type:  Mandan 759, Luna, Manska, and Greenleaf

Tall Wheatgrass
Perennial Ryegrass
Creeping Red Fescue
Crested Wheatgrass
Smooth Brome
Creeping Foxtail
Meadow Brome
Orchardgrass
Russian Wildrye
Kentucky Bluegrass
Tall Fescue
Timothy
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PO Box 1028
Havre, Montana 59501



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Intermediate/Pubescent Wheatgrass